Throwing money to garbage!! Because it looks ugly!!

Is there anyone with any, any solution??

Developed countries waste foods, as they are having plenty; they throw away the foods which looks ugly.

Whereas, underdeveloped countries waste foods due to lack of infrastructure and technology!!

Some horrible facts are —

1.       1.3 billion tons of foods are wasted every year.

2.       This amounts to US$1 trillion dollars of wasted or lost food.

3.       If wasted food was a country, it would be the third largest producer of carbon dioxide in the world, after the United States and China.

4.       Just one quarter of all wasted food could feed the 795 million undernourished people around the world who suffer from hunger.

5.       Food waste in rich countries (222 million tons) is approximately equivalent to all of the food produced in Sub-Saharan Africa (230 million tons).

6.       A European or North American consumer wastes almost 100 kilograms of food annually, which is more than his or her weight (70 kilograms).

7.       A European or North American consumer wastes 15 times more food than a typical African consumer.

8.       Lack of technology and infrastructure is the main cause of food waste in Africa, as opposed to household food waste in the developed world.

9.       Food waste in Europe alone could feed 200 million hungry people.

10.  Food waste generates 3.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide, which accelerates global climate change.

Get more eye opening information in this video below.


World Environment Day (WED) is a day to remember that the Earth’s natural resources are limited, and to celebrate positive environmental actions that protect those resources. Food waste—which represents a third of all food produced globally—is a major area where the Earth’s resources could be used more responsibly. The Barilla Center for Food and Nutrition (BCFN) hopes to reduce food waste by 50 percent by 2020 through the Milan Protocol.

Dedicated to all the Food Handlers on the event of World Environment Day. Living for a Better Tomorrow!!


Larder, Garde Manger, Cold kitchen

          The term Garde Manger originally identified a storage area. Preserved foods such as: Hams, sausages, bacon, cheese, etc. were held in this area, cold foods for Banquets and Buffets are arranged here. Over the years this term evolved to mean more than just a storage area. It now, also indicates a station in the professional kitchen, responsible for preparing Cold foods, Buffets, Decorative pieces, etc. and it’s Chefs who prepare them.

           Definition: The Larder is a department set aside for the storage of all perishable foods both raw and cooked and is also used for processing and preparation of all cold items served to the.

         Functions: The Larder or Garde Manger or Cold Kitchen is a department in the professional kitchen for:

  1. The storage of all perishable raw food items which needs a storage temperature of minus-18 degree C.
  2. The storage of all prepared and cooked items like cold appetizers, cold meats, cold sauces, salads etc. and all cold items found on the Menu.
  3. In order for the Larder to function properly it is essential that the Larder is separate from the hot Kitchen and is located in a cool place but not very far. It must be well lit, airy and well ventilated; it must be sufficiently spacious for staff to carry out their duties in a hygienic and efficient manner. And it must be equipped with the necessary fittings, plant and machinery, tools, etc. in accordance with the and / or quality of work.

Sub-Sections of the Larder Kitchen
           Its main responsibility is to cater to the requirements of the Hot Kitchen for raw materials such as fish fillets, steaks, etc, and to supply the finished products as required by the Room Service, Buffets, Banquets, etc, for all cold dishes.
            The Sections of the Larder can be divided depending on the volume of work into:-


                      The Area which processes raw materials like meat, fish, etc, is the Butchery and the Fish Mongery. Basic cuts are produced, marinated, roasted, smoked, or poached over here. The portion or cuts or joints are prepared according to the demands from the different outlets with- in the hotel.

The following products are produced:-

1.       Gelatine products:

a.       Aspic

b.      Mouses, Mousseline

c.       Colees

d.      Chaufroid sauces

e.       Cold soups

2.      Marinated Products:

a.       Salads

b.      Brines and Cures

c.       Pickled products

d.      Smoked Products

3.      Forcemeats for Galantines, Pâtés, Sausages, Terrines, Quenelles, Timbales, Roulades, etc.

4.      Piece Montee or Centerpieces or Non-Edible Displays:

a.       Ice carvings

b.      Tallow sculpture

c.       Salt dough sculpture

d.      Fruit and vegetable displays

e.       Pastillage

f.        jelly logos

g.       Thermocol displays

5.       Cold Hors d’oeuvres

6.      Sandwiches

7.       Specialty items such as, Caviar, Oysters, Snails, Foe gras, cheese, etc.


Large or heavy duty equipment

1) Buffalo Chopper or bowl chopper
2) Mincing machine
3) Bone saw machine
4) Gravity slicer or meat slicer
5) Vegetable processor
6) Dough mixer
7) Vacuum packing machine
8) Sandwich counter
9) Hanging rail system.
10) Sausage stuffer
11) Smoking machines
12) Grinding machine
13) Refrigerator
14) Walk in
15) Steel work tables
16) Weighing scale
17) Salamander
18) Butcher
s blocks
19) Fish kettle
20) Steam kettle

Tools and small equipment

1) Zester
2) Channeller
3) Can and bottle openers
4) Corer
5) Pitters
6) Egg slicer
7) Mandolin slicer
8) Butcher
s chopper and cleavers
9) Boning knife
10) Filleting knife
11) Oyster knife
12) Buntz knife or wavy knife
13) Cheese knife
14) Mezzaluna or mincing knife
15) Sieves
16) Chinois
17) Pie moulds
18) Terrine moulds
19) Trauchelard
20) Larding needles
21) Trussing needles
22) Perissienne scoops
23) Steak hammer
24) Meat thermometers
25) Brining syringe & pump

Duties and responsibilities of the Chef Garde Manger:
1) He is responsible directly to the Chef de Cuisine.
2) He is responsible for all perishable and frozen foods stored in the Larder.
3) He is responsible for all cold foods that are issued from the Larder.
4) He is responsible for supplying different cuts, joints, etc. of meat and fish as required by the outlets.
5) He is responsible for all the staff in the Larder and their Training.
6) He is responsible for Hygiene in the larder as per H.A.C.C.P. standards.
7) He is responsible for maintaining Larder control, like checking for quality and quantity, storing, keeping records of issues, daily stock sheets, etc.
8) He is responsible for controlling pilferage.

Essentials of Larder Control:
1) All invoices to be checked for quality and quantity against goods delivered to the Larder.
2) To ensure that all goods received must be stored at the right place and at the right temperature.
3) Portion control while pre-preparation must be carried out to ensure „yield
and required number of portions.
4) Stock of food both raw and cooked must be regularly turned over. (FIFO).
5) Do not over stock.
6) Food items stored must be protected from vermin and pest.
7) Proper record of issues from the Larder both raw and cooked.
8) A daily stock / consumption sheet to be maintained.
9) Ensure complete hygienic standards are followed as per H.A.C.C.P.
10) Precautions must be taken to avoid pilferage.



There are various heavy and light equipments required for the commercial kitchens. Determining the specific equipment required for the proposed kitchen is one aspect of design on which considerable time can be spent. During this part of the planning process the food service facility consultant has to estimate accurately the capacity of each of the various types of kitchen equipment to be used. If these capacity estimates are too low, the result will be delays and bottleneck in the food production process. Estimates that are too high will result in expensive and inefficient piece of equipment. The consultant should be careful to take into account any projected increase in business volume, that would require increased equipment capacity, and plan accordingly. At this juncture, he has to make decision about the manufacturer, the model number, attachments, special accessories.

A systematic method of determining equipment capacity required is to analyse each food item appearing on the menu. Whether a la carte (or) daily change menu as in the case of buffets a sample of the typical menus may be sufficient. First, we have to estimate the number of portions to be prepared for a particular period. This estimate is made for every menu item requiring equipment. Next the standard portion size of the each food item has to be fixed. For e.g. (soup-240 ml., coffee-180 ml., etc.) multiplying the estimated number of portions by the portion size will give the total volume if food to be prepared.

Once the volume of food to be prepared is arrived, the capacity of the equipment should be determined with future changes anticipated. Trends can be studied, and then any anticipated changes in foods, sales volumes or meals offered can be projected to see if drastic changes in equipment are necessary. For e.g.: perhaps no freezer space will be required currently, but if the need for freezer space is highly probable is 5 or 10 years, space can be left to add it then conveniently and economically.

The method of preparations and production for each item is then evaluated. Possible alternatives may include a) items individually prepared to order. b) Items prepared in small batches in anticipation of orders, c) item prepared in large batches, d) item that are partially batch prepared and finished when orders are received.

The batch size is next determined for those items that are to be prepared batches. The selection of the batch size is one way that the food service facility consultant can control the capacity of the equipment. Smaller and more frequently prepared batches are desirable because they require less equipment capacity and the foods are fresher when served. Some items that can be held swell after cooking can be made in larger batches.

For those items to be prepared and cooked to order, the maximum no. Of portion to be made at one time is evaluated on the basis of the no. of customers, their menu preference, their arrival pattern.

After determining portions, equipment catalogs may be consulted to match the capacity needed for production with the available sizes of standard equipment. The designer is also careful when sizing some equipment that may have a usable capacity that is somewhat less than the standard capacity.

Equipment Check list

The equipment required for the kitchen varies from one type of operation to another depending on the menu offerings, the nature of food materials, method of preparation, service, personal desire of the owners, manager, or chefs. The following list of equipment is grouped by typical functional areas.

Refrigerated, storage

Cold Rooms:

·                     Shelves

·                     Dairy

·                     S.S.Trolleys

·                     Vegetables

Freeze Room: 

·                     Fish

·                     Meat


Cold Kitchen


·                     Meat Saw

·                     Gravity feed slicer

·                     Meat Block

·                     Reach in Refrigerator

·                     Reach in Freezer

·                     Scales

·                     Work Table with service and drain board

·                     SS Utility Trolley

·                     Mincer – Chopper

·                     Sausage Stuffer

·                     Buffalo Chopper

Vegetable and Salad Preparation


·                     French-fry cutter

·                     Peeler

·                     SS preparation table

·                     Salad rack

·                     Vegetable cutter

·                     Slicer/Chopper



·                 Griddle

·                 Microwave oven

·                 SS worktable – sink drain board

·                 Toaster

·                 Salamander

·                 Reach in Refrigerator

·                 Bread Cabinet

·                 Juice extractor

·                 Coffee/Tea Pantry man

·                 Ice Cream cabinet


Cooking – All kitchens


Bain Marie counters with overhead heaters.

Chinese range

Condiment cabinet

S.S.work table

S.S. work table with sink unit

S.S.work table with OH shelf

Deck oven

Food warmer

Brat pan



Gas cooking ranges (a la carte, Indian kitchen, Banquet, Halwaii)

Refrigerated Table

Reach in Freezer

Reach in Refrigerator


Steam jacket kettle

Pot rack

SS utility trolley

Vertical cutter/Mixer

Dosa Plate

Chapatti Puffer

Wet Grinder

Bakery and Confectionery

S.S.Work Table

Bread Moulder

Bread Slicer

Cooling rack

Convection oven

Deck own

Dough divider

Dough rounder

Dough sheeter

Dough kneader

Weighing scale

Planetary Mixer

Proofing cabinet

Proofing rack

Ice cream machine

Snacks bar


Coffee maker

Food warmer


Fudge warmer


Gas range

Work table

Working table with sink and drain board

Slush Machine

Juice dispenser

Pastry cabinet

S/W grill

Soda fountain

SS utility trolley

Bain Marie counter

Chaat Counter

Dosa Plate

Pot work

Pot rack


Pre rinse faucet

Water agitator

Drying rack

Wet Grinding

Convention wet grinder

Tilting model wet grinder


       A complete discussion of selecting and sizing of all the different types of kitchen equipments is beyond the scope of this study material. A brief discussion of frequently specified major items of equipments would serve to illustrate this part of the planning process.


Deep fat fryers are available in a variety of types, capacities and degree of automatic operation desired. The productive capacity of a fryer is related to the litres of fat in the fryers, the heat input, and the cooking time required for various foods. Typical designs of fryers are based on a fat-to-food ratio 6:1. This indicates that each kg. of food to be fried requires 6 lits. of oil (or) fat in the deep fat fryer. Conventional fryers are tailor made to the requirement of the client to various capacity, 1/2 lit, 1 lit. 3, 5, 7 and so on.

Pressure fryers make another category of deep fryers they are sealed to permit steam pressure to build up between the lid and the fat surface. The steam is generated from the foods fried or by water injectors. The pressure fryer reduces the loss of moisture from foods. Heat transfer in a pressure fryer is greater than a conventional fryer and consequently the cooking time is shorter. The food is brown outside, moist and juicy on the inside.

 BRATT PAN (Tilting frying pan):

The brat pan is one of the most versatile pieces of cooking equipment. Its design is such that it can be used to boil, simmer, grill, sauté, fry and curries. For some items like Indian gravies, sambar, foogath can be done in the tilting frying pan with some savings in time that would normally be spent transferring foods and cleaning other utensils. Brat pan may be free standing; walls mounted, counter mounted and are available in gas and electricity model. There are models which are ignited by electricity and working on gas. The brat pan is tilted by a worm and gear assembly operated by hand wheel. They are tailor made to difference capacities of 50 litres. to 300 litres.


Griddle are flat top piece of equipment heated from beneath, as compared to grills which have heating sources both above and beneath. Griddles are used for high production food service and fast food operations. Grills are more of a specialty piece of equipment. Both gas fired and electric models are suitable for most purposes. Griddle are available in variety of sizes from small i.e. 10” x 20” to as large as 72” x 24”. Griddles are free standing, counter-mounted, mobile or built in as the situation demands. The height of the splashguard, location and the width of the grease trough should be considered when specifying griddles. Combination griddle-grill is also available. This provides greater flexibility for the preparation of different menu items.



Food cutters are versatile piece of equipment that can handle meats, vegetable and fruits. The food cutters can cut, dice, shred, and almost liquefies foods, depending upon the amount of time the food is left in the cutter. The foods to be size reduced are placed in a bowl, which rotates and exposes them to high speed rotating blades. Both bench and floor models are available. Some cutter models are equipped with an attachment hub for accepting various attachments.


Steam jacketed kettles are constructed of two stainless steel bowls sealed one within the other, with almost 2” of space between them for the introduction of steam. The amount of steam surface between the bowls is referred to as jacketing, and models from half-jacketed to full jacketed are available. The operation of steam-jacketed kettles utilizes steam, which is condensed back to water in the jacket to provide the heat for the inner kettle. A condensate line is provided to remove the water that accumulates. The amount of heat input is dependent upon the pressure and amount of steam allowed to enter the jacketed area. There is a pressure gauge to indicate the pressure. In case of excess pressure is let into the jacket, there is a pressure /air release valve to reduce the pressure. These kettles are used to cook rice, dhal, boil milk, and cook vegetables. They are available in 50, 100, 200 and 300 lit. cap.




Gas cooking ranges have open top burners with high-pressure burners, T-22, T-35. They are tailor made for the client’s is requirement. They are manufactured in different combinations such as 2 in 1, 3 in 1, 4 in 1 and 6 in 1. The length and breadth of the range depends on the quantity food to be prepared. In case of a la carte preparation, a combination of high and low pressure burners is used, the area being 14”x 14”. The height of the cooking ranges 33” – 34”. But for ideal bulk cooking the length various between 20” to 24” per range, and. the height is reduced to 18” to 20”. Heavy gauge stainless steel and heavy-duty supports are used for these cooking ranges since it involves bulk preparation.


     A Chinese gas cooking range is aptly designed for authentic Chinese delicacies, with a cast iron dome, to prevent the direct heat on to the chef while cooking with a wok. A 12” to 14” height splash back with a swivelling faucet with controls in front panel for immediate water, and a drain channel at the rear to enable to chef to empty the wastewater is also provided in this equipment. They are ideal with flat open top gas range in the middle for stockpot and dome cover gas ranges on either side for a la carte preparations.




The dosa plate are similar to the griddle which have hot plates specially designed to prepare dosas. The plate is thick machine polished, mild steel with even heat distribution for optimum use.

The M.S.plate rests on stainless steel frame, and it has S.S.top, front and a specially placed oil spillage trough. The splash back on all three sides of the dosa plate to avoid splash of oil or batter. For uniform heat distribution a “V” shaped burner is placed. This unit is available in electric/gas. It is custom-built size to prepare a minimum 2-3 dosas to 8-10 dosas at a time.


Idly steamers are S.S. cabinets with tight fitting doors with gaskets. Steam is injected into the cabinet to pre heat to the required temperature. Idly plates are made of S.S./Alum. with different combinations. The steam is injected from the sides, top and bottom. These cabinets are tailor made to accommodate 2-4-6 idly plates at a time. It is advisable to have 2 plate compartments because steam is lost during the process of loading the idly plates.


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