Category Archives: Facility Planning

Old thinking vs. New technologies

Old Hotel Phone

Old Hotel Phone

             There was a time when telephones were only available to the elite. As such, it was strictly the most upscale hotels that made use of phones during the late 1800s and early 1900s. Typically, a desk phone would have been available for hotel staff, and a single wall phone located in the lobby area for guest use, with all calls being directed through an outside operator.

        In 1957 Hilton first offers direct-dial telephone service in Hotel. This allowed  rooms to dial out local calls and be billed for them.Another feature was single digit dialing for various services–room service, valet, concierge, front desk, each would have a single digit assigned to them and the phone dial would have an outer mount explaining all this.For long distance calls, hotel operators would ask for time and charges (as most businesses did back them), record them, and add them to the guest’s bill.


Although still considered to be a luxury, this became a turning point for phones within the hospitality industry. As guests could now connect directly to other guest rooms, the front desk, and outside lines, the demand for in-room phone extensions was growing. Over the following decades, the popularity of both residential and commercial telephone systems exploded, enabling hotels to take advantage of the service for accepting advance reservations.
Guest Room Phone
        The next major change occurred in the 1960s, when touch-tone telephones were introduced. Not only did this improve dialing speed, but the technology also made automated phone menus possible. As technology progressed, hotels enjoyed the luxuries of caller ID, multiple phone lines, call waiting, call transfers, and more.
The biggest breakthrough for hotel phone systems came with the launch of the World Wide Web. Although, at the time, many traditional phone companies argued that voice would never be able to travel via the internet, the idea was never abandoned, and as early as 1995 the “Internet Phone” was born. It took nearly a decade to perfect this particular technology, with the world’s introduction to Skype in 2003 as the big game-changer.
At present, hotels and guests has shifted to the Handheld Android Devices and I-pad, I-Phone, etc.

What is HACCP?

What is HACCP?

          HACCP is an acronym for the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system. HACCP is a preventative system that is used in the food industry to help ensure food safety. The basis for HACCP is to identify potential hazards associated with food production and preparation, and to develop mechanisms to eliminate or control these hazards. HACCP can be applied to all areas of food production, from the farm to the homes of consumers. HACCP is important to all segments of the food industry.

[           During the past twenty years, most HACCP programs have been dedicated to food processing plants which are in the “middle” of the food production chain. More recently, the food industry has realized the importance of establishing HACCP principles for the end of the food production chain: retail food and foodservice operations. The use of HACCP can complement quality control programs. When measures are taken to assure food safety, this generally results with better food quality. HACCP is not a stand-alone system! Effective cleaning and sanitizing programs and maintaining the health and cleanliness of the food handler are also important for assuring a safe, high-quality food. These programs are typically not part of HACCP programs because they are difficult to monitor, and safe limits have not been clearly established.

History of HACCP

The concept of HACCP was initiated by the Pillsbury Company. The Pillsbury Company, the National Aeronautic and Space Agency (NASA), the Natick Laboratories of the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Air Force Space Laboratory Project Group worked together on a project in food production for the NASA space program. The pathway of HACCP started in 1959 when Pillsbury was asked to produce a food that could be used under zero gravity conditions in space capsules. In 1959, they began the project knowing basically nothing about how foods might react under zero gravity conditions. The most difficult and perhaps most important aspect of the project was to develop a system to assure that food products would not be contaminated with biological, chemical, or physical hazards. Such hazards might result in an aborted or catastrophic mission.

With these problems in mind, the research groups concluded it was necessary to develop a preventive food safety system that would reduce the likelihood of biological, chemical, and physical hazards. In doing so, control could be achieved over all aspects of food production including raw material, processing, environmental conditions, personnel, storage, distribution, and transport. This approach, referred to as HACCP, worked well for the NASA space program, and was quickly adapted by the food industry.                  ]

[Para within bracket is not for exam.]

A Systematic Study

            HACCP involves a systematic study of the ingredients, the food product, the conditions of processing, handling, storage, packaging, distribution, and consumer use. The complete analysis allows for the identification of the “sensitive” areas in the process flow which might contribute to a hazard. From this information, “Critical Control Points” (CCP’s) can be determined. Areas identified as CCP’s are monitored and limits are determined to control potential hazards.

            When properly applied, HACCP can be used to control any area or point in the food system which could contribute to a hazardous situation whether it be contaminants, disease-causing microorganisms, physical objects, chemicals, raw materials, an unsafe process, package labeling, or storage conditions. There are seven principles/stages, which are used to develop and implement a HACCP program.


Seven principles/stages of HACCP.

1) Analyze hazards

2) Determine CCP’s

3) Establish critical limits for CCP’s

4) Monitor CCP’s

5) Take corrective action

6) Do record keeping

7) Verify that the system is working


1)    Hazard Analysis

            In the first step of HACCP, it is important to identify potential hazards that might be associated with growing, harvesting, raw materials and ingredients for processing, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, preparation, and consumption of the food. The types of hazards depend on the type(s) of foods and preparation practice(s) involved. The purpose of hazard analysis is to identify all potential hazards (biological, chemical, and physical) that may be associated with the flow of a given food. Some potential hazards of concern in foodservice and retail foods are identified as below –

Common hazards in foodservice and food retail operations.


Pathogenic bacteria (i.e. Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus)

Viruses (i.e. Hepatitis A)

Parasites (i.e. Trichinella spiralis)

Rodents and insects (can carry bacteria, viruses, parasites)


Naturally occurring (i.e. seafood toxins)

Added chemicals (i.e. cleaning agents, pesticides)


Inherent to food (i.e. bone particles)

Non-inherent to food (i.e. glass, stone, wood)

2)    Determine CCP’s

            This step identifies critical areas or points of the flow of a food product that are required to control the identified hazards. For an area to be considered a CCP, loss of control would mean the likelihood of an unacceptable health hazard. In HACCP programs, sometimes “control points” (CP’s) will also be identified. A CCP (Critical Control Point) is different from a CP. A CCP indicates a high food safety risk (likely to occur) and a CP indicates a low food safety risk (not likely to occur). Food safety relies on identification and control of CCP’s, while; CP’s may be used for quality specifications.

CCP (Critical Control Point) or CP(Control Point)?

If control is lost, is it LIKELY that a health risk will occur?

If the answer is YES, this is considered a CCP.

If the answer is NO, this is considered a CP.


3)    Establish Critical Limits for CCP’s

            This step establishes upper and/or lower limits for each CCP. CCP’s are set for foods that can naturally carry and/or support the growth of a food borne hazard. These types of foods are called potentially hazardous foods. Limits for CCP’s to control biological hazards in foodservice and food retail operations are usually time and temperature related since they can be easily monitored. Time and temperature are also the most important factors permitting growth of bacteria. Occasionally, a measurement in pH (acidity of a food) may also be used as a critical limit. Although important, limits for chemical and physical hazards are used less often in HACCP plans for foodservice and food retail. Chemical and physical hazard levels are usually more easily monitored and controlled prior to receipt at a foodservice and/or food retail establishment. For chemical hazards, it will be important to ensure that chemicals (cleaning agents) are separated from foods. A visual inspection can be used for physical hazards.

            Time and temperature limits can be set for various areas of retail food production. They include receiving, cold storage, thawing, cooking, cooling, reheating, hot-holding, and cold holding of foods. Some suggested critical limits are included below –


Temperature/time critical limits for retail food preparation.

Receiving: Internal temperature should be <41°F for all potentially hazardous foods.

Cold Storage: Internal temperature should be maintained at <41°F for all potentially hazardous foods.

Thawing: Refrigerator thawing at <41°F is suggested. Microwave thawed foods must be cooked immediately after thawing. Cool water thawing must be done at <70°F for <2 hours from a continuously running potable water supply. Thawing at room temperature is not acceptable.

Preparation of Food: Preparation of potentially hazardous foods should be done so that food is held not between 41-140°F whenever possible. If food must be prepared between 41°-140°F, it can only be exposed in this temperature range for 4 hours total time, however, <2 hours total time is preferred.


Food type:- Internal temperature:-* Holding time

Beef roast (rare):-     130°F :-      121 minutes

Beef roast (rare):-   140°F :-    12 minutes

Eggs, meat, fish:-  140°F:-      15 seconds

Pork,game animals,ground beef:-155°F:-15 sec.

Poultry, stuffed meats:- 165°F:- 15 seconds

         [*for Microwave cooking Add 25°F]

Cooling: Potentially hazardous foods must be cooled from 140°F to 70°F within 2 hours and from 70°F to 41°F within 4 hours (6 hours total time).

Reheating: All foods must be reheated to an internal temperature of 165°F within 2 hours. Foods may only be reheated once.

Hot Holding: After proper cooking, internal temperature should be maintained at >140°F prior to being served for all potentially hazardous foods.

Cold Holding: Internal temperature should be maintained at <41°F prior to being served for all for all potentially hazardous foods.

4)    Monitoring CCP’s

            Monitoring CCP’s includes the recording of data (temperature, time) for limits which have been set for each CCP in the HACCP plan. Data collection is important to assure that CCP limits are being met. The procedures and frequency for monitoring CCP’s will differ depending on the type of food(s) and the preparation practices used.

5)    Corrective Action

            If monitoring shows that a limit for a CCP has been exceeded, corrective action procedures must be in place to assure the safety of the food. Corrective action procedures may range from discarding the product to simply cooking the product to a higher temperature. Corrective action procedures will differ depending on the type of foods and the preparation practices used.

6)    Record Keeping

            Keeping records of the HACCP plan and for monitored CCP’s is extremely important. It is a good idea to have records available for 1 year on location, and for 3 years total. Good record keeping helps to assure proper use of the HACCP program and the safety of foods that are served. During an inspection, a health inspector may ask to see records for the HACCP program.

7)    Verification

            Before, during, and after development of a HACCP food safety prevention program, it is important to verify that the program is appropriate. HACCP programs can be verified by a representative from the state or local health department.

Once the program is in place, an employee in charge of food safety and quality should be assigned responsibility for the HACCP program. This individual needs to verify that employees are performing tasks in the HACCP program. This person should also be responsible for training and educating employees on principles of food safety, food quality, and HACCP. Continuing education is the key for preventing risks of food borne illness.

            Monitoring, good record keeping, and corrective action are the heart of a HACCP program. These procedures work best when one person is in charge of verifying that CCP’s are being monitored, good records are being kept, and corrective action is taken when needed.


Steps in Designing a HACCP plan

1) Set up a HACCP team (food manager, cook, local health inspector etc.).

2) Develop a flow diagram of the process (for each food that is served).

3) Perform a hazard analysis.

4) Determine CCP’s.

5) Establish critical limits for CCP’s.

6) Establish a procedure for monitoring CCP’s.

7) Establish plans for corrective action.

8) Establish a method for record keeping.

9) Train employees to understand. HACCP plans (How and Why!)

10) Implement the HACCP plan.

11) Verify that the HACCP plan is effective.

Word Press Tags: HACCP, ACCP, , food, production, Pillsbury, NASA

Setup, Layout & Maintenance of kitchen part 2



            No fixed lay out of food preparation area is set universally; as space, volume of work, type of business are different at different situation. Therefore, every kitchen has its layout. In general, layout carries some common area of consideration. They are –

  1. Kitchen layout should be spacious.
  2. Kitchen should be well lighted.
  3. Kitchen should be refreshed with fresh air.
  4. Floors should be durable, to meet the heavy traffic & equipment load.
  5. Floor should be impervious to moisture.
  6. Grease, salts, acids, cleaning agents etc, should not affect floor.
  7. Floors should not be slippery, even when wet.
  8. Walls should be tiled to the ceiling, or at least to a height of eye level and over then it can be painted.
  9. Wall paints should be greaseproof and washable.
  10. No joints, crevices, in floors & walls where dirt and dusts can accumulate and pests and vermin can live in.
  11. Wood works, furniture’s should be gloss painted, to facilitate wipe cleaning.
  12. Doors should be self-closing, with easily cleanable kick plates, fingerplates, holders etc firmly fitted. Service doors should be of two ways with a window.
  13. Natural lights should be used, as far as practicable. Artificial lights, when used should be properly fitted and glairs and shadows prevented.
  14. Make no storage spaces, racks, cupboards etc over eye level.
  15. Areas of raw materials storage and cooking should be separated from cleaning and wash-up section.
  16. Cooking area should be near to food pick up area.
  17. Food pick-up area should be near to service area.
  18. Try to keep the workflow effective with less bends, turns, and zigzags, step backs etc. blind turns should be avoided.
  19. Paths of raw foods should not cross the prepared food path.
  20. Barriers should be placed to minimize the sound coming from kitchen to guest area.
  21. Hoods should be liberally placed on top of all working area producing hot air, smoke, and grease.
  22. Different provisions should be made for the washing of hands, food materials, and utensils.
  23. Source of cooking & drinking water should be separate from other sources of water, with clear visible marking.
  24. Equipments should be placed at a minimum distance of 6 inch from walls.
  25. All the supplies like power, earthening, cooking gas, steam, hot & cold water, air ducts etc should be properly marked with specific color codes.
  26. All the work area should accompany a small basin.
  27. Utensils rack should be near to cooking area.
  28. Refreshment rooms, toilets, changing rooms should be far from kitchen area.
  29. Deep freezer rooms’ entrance should be with chiller room.
  30. Drainage/ sewage system should be covered with a facility of through cleaning.




UPKEEP AND MAINTENANCE of kitchen or its parts is vital because this sector runs mostly 24 hours for 365 days without halts. Any breakdown of any part of kitchen will influence the service of business house. Therefore, any faults should be treated with urgency. Nevertheless, it is better to avoid any faults or emergencies than facing it. So every corner of kitchen are subject to a proper, effective, and regular maintenance and upkeep program. These are some of the points worth consideration. It also provides the hygienic standards.

  1. All the kitchen floors should be washed and wiped dry at a frequency of at least 6 times a day (or in every 4 hours).
  2. Kitchen walls should be washed and wiped dry at a frequency of 4 times a day.
  3. All the washes and cleanings should be by detergents with disinfectants.
  4. The entire work surface like tables, burner tops, cooking ranges, equipments etc should be washed and wiped dry after finishing nay job or at a regular frequency. In addition, it should go through one thorough cleaning once in a week or after any heavy workload.
  5. Small tools like knives, blades, scissors, forks, cutter, chopping boards, peelers, slicers etc should be kept clean and dry whenever not in use. One thorough cleaning with disinfectant once in a week.
  6. Butchery should not run for 24 hours and the room should be treated with strong disinfectant daily at the end, following scrapping, washing, wiping, and drying.
  7. Temperature factors of all heating equipments and all cooling units should be checked periodically (daily, weekly, monthly etc).
  8. Workload, power consumption, speed etc of all electrical equipments should be checked frequently.
  9. Supplies like gas, hot cold water, steams etc should be checked against leakage or blockage regularly. Valves, controls, switches, turn over etc also subject to effectiveness checking.
  10. Clothes, linens used in kitchen and food service area should be washed with disinfectant and ironed daily.
  11. Any spills of liquids, oils, etc should be cleaned as soon as possible. In case of oil spills, a hand full of salt grains should be applied on the area.
  12. Hot utensils, covers, oven-tops should be marked with red color or some refined flour should be sprinkled.
  13. Used and soiled utensils, tools should be washed as soon as possible.
  14. Exhaust ducts should be fitted with grease filter, and cleaned daily.
  15. Lights should be wiped regularly, replacing the fused one ASAP.