WATER SYSTEM

Water-supply

Water supply in hotels:

                It may be effected through public utility authority. The concerned authority do the drawing of water from available sources and the filtration and treatment follow, after which treated water supplied.

                Hotels can make their own arrangement also by sinking deep tube wells, digging of ring well and use of available ponds.

                There are two common systems for distribution of water (i) up-fed and (ii) down fed.

                In up-fed type sufficient supply pressure necessary to supply water to upper floors of building. If pressure not adequate at times then additional circulating pumps are used. In down-fed type water is pumped to high level storage tank. From this tank water flows down to various distribution points due gravity. Circulating pumps may also be used for better flow of water.

 

Cold water systems in India:

                Gravitation system applicable when water available in abundant quantity at sufficient elevation. These require minimum maintenance cost. Hilly regions have this benefit.

                If water source is a lake or river at lower level then water pumped to an elevated level reservoir and water distribution done using gravity. For even distribution the reservoir or tank is to be located in central place and water pumping station located as close to reservoir as is possible.

                In both cases water must be properly filtered and treated before supply of same.

 

Water hardness:

                Hardness of water caused by calcium salt present in it. So far as drinking and washing water concerned such water may affect adversely. Temporary hardness of water can be removed by boiling. But for removal of permanent hardness, suitable chemical treatment necessary.

Water softening- base exchange method:

                Zeolite or Base Exchange process is the most used method of water softening as at present. Zeolite sand (kind of rock) and also artificial zeolite has the property of removing lime, magnesium, iron, manganese etc from water. Presence of these cause water hardening. Hard water passed through a filter containing zeolite sand and thus, the hardening elements removed. It is a very effective process while cost incurred also favorable compared to other methods. But this is not for turbid water and is suitable for clear water only.

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Cold water cistern swimming pool:

                In certain standard hotel swimming pool facilities are also provided.

                Average capacity cold water swimming pools are of size 75ft x 30ft, up to 7ft deep at one end and 3ft 6inch at other end. Water area approx. taken at 27 to 36 sq.ft. per person using the pool tank. Tanks are made with slope towards diving side. These are designed with constituents like – spring boards, dressing boxes, toilets and lavatories etc. Water purification system is important. Purification involves addition of bleaching powder or chlorine in proper proportion i.e. 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million parts of water.

                The size of swimming pools may be as 50ftx25ft, 75ftx30ft, 100ftx42ft, 132ftx48ft, 165ftx60ft so forth.

Hot-and-Cold-Water

Hot water supply in hotels:

                There are three system most commonly used as at present i.e. hydronic hot water, warm air and electric resistance system. In resistance or warm air system a separate hot water heater required. But in the hydronic boiler hot water system all the hot water can be supplied from the boiler itself. A hydronic system is easily adaptable to heating swimming pools and greenhouses.

                Another efficient system is heat exchanger connected with water supply.

                Geysers can also be fitted in bathrooms independently.

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Flushing system:

                All pucca drains are to be cleaned by proper flushing with water time to time obviously for health reason, as such drains are breeding places of mosquitoes.

                Suitable methods to be applied to clean sewers by flushing. flushing cistern connected with water closets are used to flush away foecal matter. A flushing cistern usually provides a flush of 3 gallons or so of water at a time. After every use it gets refilled from overhead water at a time. After every time use it gets refilled from overhead water tank.

                For flushing public latrines, urinal etc. automatic flush tanks that can discharge 5 to 8 gallons of water are used.

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Water Closet:

                This device is for receiving and carrying away foecal matter by means of water. At present sanitary practice the basin and the siphon trap are made in one piece and manufactured in porcelain. A good closet does not give out foul smell; work with minimum water and of simple construction.

                Two types – European one standing at a height from floor and Indian one squatting pattern placed over the floor.

Water trap:

                For house, drainage works such traps used. Made of cast-iron usually “R” or “P” shaped used in soil pipes. Object of such traps is to prevent foul sewer gas finding its way inside dwellings.

                The water from bathrooms wash-basins, water closets etc. are discharged through the traps which are siphon type in make.

Water Taps:

                Are used for receiving, collecting and also discharging water. May be of metallic or plastic make. Due negligence taps may cause wastage of water. This is to be taken care of.

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