Classes of fire, methods of extinguishing it:
Loss of life and property due to fire are grim matters. So, effective measures against occurrence of such fire is absolute necessity. To meet up requirements of fire insurance policy as well measures to be taken for prevention of fire.
Four types of fire are as follows;
class “A” fire: it is about fire in ordinary combustible materials like cotton, paper, wood etc. normally water can be used. Also dry chemical powder (D.C.P.).
Class “B” fire: fire in petrol, diesel, solvent oil, paints etc.. both sand and foam can be used to extinguish the fire. These will bring in blanketing effect by preventing air contact with fire.
Class “C” fire: electrical and gas fire. Extinguisher to be electrically non-conductive. Sand and also carbon-di-oxide gas extinguisher applicable.
Class “D” fire: fire in metals like aluminium, Zinc, magnesium, tin etc. For this type of fire sand considered to be best extinguisher. Cease fire small extinguisher are also available for all sorts of limited fire. The expiry date of all sorts of limited fire. The expiry date of all sorts of fire extinguishers to be observed carefully, of course excepting water.
Fire extinguisher, portable and stationary:
Both types are available. Stationary types are water hydrants. These are water connections fitted with control valve and nozzle for fixing up with hosepipe. Water supply authority makes such provision at various points of localities to fight fire. Bottle types are the portable ones.
Fire detector and alarm:
Smoke detectors provide a reliable early warning in the event of fire. The equipment work by sensing the rising smoke from a fire and at the same time gives out sounds of alarm. These are available in the market in two brands-
Photoelectric smoke detector.
Ionization chamber type.
Both above brands are equally effective in signalling proper warning.
Automatic fire-detector cum extinguisher
For this automatic water sprinklers are employed. A most efficient means for controlling and extinguishing fire in buildings. The sprinklers with its pipings are fitted on the ceilings of building having outlet heads arranged generally on the basis of one head for each 100 sqft of floor area of building.
It operators on the principle that as soon as fire occur the sprinkler head in the immediate vicinity of the fire will open and sprinkling of water begin to control and extinguish the fire. At the same time it will operate the alarm to ring on the outside of the building to call attention that sprinkler is on and there is fire. Such sprinkler installations get adequate supply of water from the water supply system.
Structural protection and legal requirements:
1. The hotel building shall be provided with means for escape in the event of fire, provision of free passage way.
2. doors affording exit from any room should be easily opened for escape of people from inside the rooms when there is fire.
3. Effective means of warning to be provided for signaling the danger in the event of fire.
4. Adequate fire fighting arrangements very essential.
In hotel business safety and security matters are important. Few main points for consideration related to the subject given as under –
1. Construction of floors and stairs to be taken care of to prevent slips and fall, which can cause injury.
2. hotel equipments need to be handled carefully.
3. Fire can cause injury in serious manner, so preventive measures necessary against such occurrence. Fire fighting arrangements to be installed.
4. precautions against probable accidents due electrical installation and appliances are very important.
5. medical care must be available in case of any emergency.
Hotel need to have proper security and care of its personnel and customer. The following are some of the points worthy of mention in this regard-
prevention of thefts and pilferages.
safeguard of hotel property.
to guard employees and their properties.
to keep hotel premises well lighted.
installation of warning alarms as necessary.
protection of guests and employees alike.
to keep an eye on suspicious persons loitering inside hotel premises.
illegal occupation of hotel rooms.
maintenance of register for loss and found property.