Solid Waste Disposal:
These will include both domestic and commercial waste. Solid waste may be in the form of refuse, rubbish and garbage. For example items like paper, glass, pins, rejected food constituents produced during food preparation, waste food etc.
Such solid waste may be disposed as follows-
- open dumping,
- sanitary land fill.
Open dumping is easy but not recommended as it is unscientific. Causes nuisance to public, pollution, health and fire hazard.
Incineration method comprises of burning the refuse in a controlled manner. Smoke treatment necessary to control pollution of air. Commonly used for disposing toxic wastes.
Sanitary land fill is the cheapest one. It is just modification of open dumping. Waste deposited in 1-5 mt. thick layers in depression ground and then compacted and covered by earth.
Compositing is biological decomposition of organic substances contained in the waste matter. Compost form through rotting, putrification etc. of such waste. Composts may be used for producing manures. By laying alternating layers of wastes like night soil, animal dung, garbage etc. composts can be made. Equipment available for this purpose. So by compositing also solid waste may be disposed off.
Sewage and Sullage:
It is defined as combination of domestic sewage, industrial waste and storm water. Domestic sewage is the liquid waste conducted away from residences. Such sewage is also known as sanitary sewage. Industrial waste means liquid waste from industrial establishments. Storm water is the run off on the streets, open space etc. after rainfall that finds way into sewers. Sullage means the water from baths, sinks, kitchen etc, which does not contain human or or animal excreata.
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