STANDARD: After determining the type and capacity of the equipments required for a particular kitchen, the next phase involves selecting the specific characteristics that are desired. Factors such as
• Constructions techniques
• Special features
• Maintenance consideration are evaluated.
STAINLESS STEEL: Stainless steel is an alloy containing minimum amount of chromium and nickel and maximum amount of other alloying elements such as manganese, silicon and carbon. Its use in kitchen equipments is based on the following characteristics: –
• High corrosion resistance
• High strength
• Abrasion resistance
• Ease of maintenance
TYPES: Kitchen equipments manufacturers and fabricators select from the stainless steel referred to have Type 304 and 302 (food grade). These stainless steel sheets produced in India, according to the standards of Steel Authority of India that controls the amount of alloying materials.
The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is attributed to the addition of Chromium to the alloy. Nickel lowers the thermal conductivity of the alloy and increases its co-efficient of expansion, allowing it to be formed into various shapes more easily. The amount of carbon is restricted so that the alloy can be welded without forming chromium carbide, which lowers corrosion resistance.
Stainless steel is produced in sheets, plates, bars, wires, pipes and tubing.
ELEMENT TYPE 302 % TYPE 304 %
CHROMIUM 17-19 18-20
NICKEL 8-10 8-12
MANGANESE 2 max. 2 max.
SILICON 1 1
CARBON 0.15 0.08
FINISH: A number of degrees of finishing are available for Stainless steel. There are 8 designated types of finish for stainless steel. They are achieved by standard guiding, polishing and buffing. The finish used for surfaces that are in direct contact with food or exposed is standard polish No.4. Non-food contact surfaces and non-exposed supporting frames and sheets can have a duller finish, which is less expensive than polished finish.
THICKNESS: The Swiss Wire Gauge (SWG) usually designates metal thicknesses. Although other gauges are manufacture, typical gauge numbers of metals used for kitchen equipments ranges from 6 to 24 (6 is the thickest and 24 is the thinnest). The actual dimensions for these typical gauges are given below:
GAUGE NUMBER THICKNESS (inches)
Coating the steel with a layer of Zinc produces galvanized steel. The preferred method of producing galvanized steel is by electroplating, which gives the best bond between the steel and zinc. The quality of galvanized steel is dependent upon the thickness of the zinc coating.
Galvanized steel can be satisfactorily used for kitchen equipments, where there is no food contact or where abrasion is not evident. Sinks, tables, counters, shelves, racks are manufactured with galvanized steel framework.
Equipment manufacturers to produce the finished product utilize several fastening methods. The fastening of materials in the food zone has to be capable of meeting sanitary requirements while in non-food zones.
There are 3 fastening methods
• Mechanical fasteners.
WELDING: Welding is the preferred methods of joining sheets of metal that cannot be formed into the desired shapes. Heliarc welding is used on stainless steel if there is sufficient thickness of metal. The heliarc welding utilises an inert gas as the flux, resulting very smooth or strong weld. The weld can be ground and polished to the extent that the joint is equivalent to No.4 finish.
Heliarc welding is preferred for all kitchen equipments with food contact zones. Electric arc welding is as smooth or even as the heliarc welds. They may be used in non-food contact equipments. Acetylene welding may be necessary for thin metal sheets, since the other two will burn through the metal easily.
SOLDERING: Soldering is different from welding in that the metal to be joined are bonded rather than fused together. Soldered joints do not have the strength of welded joints, and should be used appropriately in those applications that are not subjected to stress. Tin and lead are the basic solders used, the presence of these metals prevents their use on joints in food contact areas. If at all soldering has to be done in a food contact area, a silver soldering may be done with 95% of tin, 5% silver, but it is expensive.
MECHANICAL FASTENERS: The use of bolts, screws, rivets and studs are undesirable in the food zones of kitchen equipments for sanitary reasons. They may be used only in non-food zones if other joining techniques are not practical. Low profile fasteners are preferred in order to facilitate cleaning of the area where the fasteners protrude.
EDGE TREATMENT: Exposed edges on kitchen equipments are formed to provide safe and sanitary conditions. Nosings are either open with sufficient room for cleaning are completely closed. If open edges are to be used at least 3/4” space between the edge and the body is required. On equipments where spillage is anticipated such as soiled dish landing table, the edges are turned up a sufficient height to contain the material.
LEGS AND FEET: Unless the equipment is to be placed on a raised platform, seated to the floor, or wall hung, legs and feet may be specified for support. Tubler or square legs are usually used to raise the equipment so that the lowest horizontal part is 6” above the floor. The legs and feet should be rigid enough to support the weight of the equipment with minimum cross bracings.
CASTERS AND ROLLERS: Mobile equipments are becoming popular in kitchen equipment, because it provides greater flexibility to accommodate different work place arrangements for handling changes in menu items. Casters and rollers are selected to assure that one worker can easily move the equipment. It also helps in cleaning the equipment better than the fixed ones. A wheel tread that is smooth and wide enough to prevent damage to the floor material is desirable.
DOORS AND PANELS: Doors that are used to enclose opening and provide access to interior areas are usually of two types,
• Single panel
• Double panel Double panel doors may include insulators heat transmission is to be minimized. They are used on refrigerators, freezers and oven. Hinges are kept minimum because it is difficult to maintain them.
Gauges commonly recommended for kitchen equipment
Equipment Recommended gauge top
• Bain Marie 14
• Drain board 12-14
• Sink 12-14
• Work table 16-18
• Counter 12-14
• Steam kettle 12-14
• Shelves 20
• Sides and bottoms 18-20
• Legs 10-12
• Cross bracings 16
• Doors – outer pan 18
• Doors – inner pan 20
There are several types of specifications that may be written includes,
PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS. It describes the work to be done by the results desired. For e.g. food facility planners know that many manufacturers are capable of producing fryers / grinders / bain-marie with different characteristics. They may choose to write a performance specification that will establish the type, size, capacity and output per hour that will meet their requirement.
For e.g. the length, breath and height of the equipment
The framework to be used
The most detailed type of specifications is the descriptive specification. It describes the component of the equipment and how these components are to be assembled. The specific identification the physical properties of the materials, size of each component, spacing.
• Legs and cross rails shall be continuously welded and ground smooth.
• Bottom of legs at floor level shall be fitted with stainless steel bullet type foot, with 1/2” adjustment.
• Gussets that are used to attach the legs to the equipment are designed to be 1” minimum dia at the top, welded to the frame or sink bottom.
• Gas equipments – all burners, copper pigtails, valve control etc..
• Ends of fixtures, splash back, shelves etc. shall be finished flush to the walls and adjoining fixtures.
• Framework to be either box type framing or open channel type.
• Drawers to be 18 gauge stainless steel channel type housing and drawer cradle; both housing and cradle being reinforced and welded at corners. Housing and cradle secured to the underside of the table top.
• Fabricate sink compartment with 1/4” coved vertical and horizontal corners.
• Framework of galvanized iron shall be welded construction, having welds smooth, and where galvanizing has been burned off, touched up with high-grade aluminium bronze.
• Edges for equipments either marine edge or crimped edge.
• Under shelves made of 18/20 SWG stainless steel sheets, double beaded on all sides and reinforced with under frame with cross supports of 35x35x5 mm M.S. angles.
Reference specification employees’ standards of recognised agency and authorities to specify quality. Many companies state in their literature and catalogue that there product or equipment conforms to specific recognised standards.
• Gas burners – United Works, Mumbai, I.S.I Mark.
• Heaters – Escorts/Racold
• Thermostat – EGO
• Compressors – Kirloskar
Proprietary specifications call for material, equipment or products by trade name, model number and manufacturers. This type of specification is the easiest to write because the commercially available products and equipments set the standard of quality acceptable to the specification writer.
For e.g. :
• Kitchen equipments – LL equipments, Continental etc..
• Vertical chopper – Hobart,
• Dish Washing machine – Electrolux
Steps to develop standard specifications.
1. Ascertain the overall size of the equipment; overall size means, the length, breadth, and the height of equipment from the ground level in mm. (1 foot = 300 mm).
2. Framework to be used.
3. Briefly describe the top and 3 sides of the equipment with gauge of metal. Then the interior of the equipment, (shelves, racks etc.) with gauge, distance between the racks and shelves.
4. Then express in brief about the 4th side i.e. the door, (swing door or sliding door) metal gauge used, type of insulation to be used.
5. Specify the electrical attachment required for the equipment – compressor on top (or) bottom, location of the panel – left / right/side. Specify the make of the electrical attachment to be used.
6. If sinks have to be made/in built with the table the overall size of the sink, the side on which it is required: LHS/RHS/Middle.
7. Bain marie containers, whether dry heat/moist heat, which side the bain marie containers are required and the size of the containers L/B/D.
8. Chute : whether chute is required, size of the chute, location of the chute, length of the chute, and finish.
9. Gas burners: type of burners, T-35, T-22, Chinese, specify the type of burners and the make to be used.
10. Wet Grinder: specify the make, capacity, if possible the model number.
Now we shall develop a standard specification for
STAINLESS STEEL WORK TABLE WITH THE UNDERSHELF.
OS – 2100 x 750 x 850 mm
Table top 16 gauge S.S.304
Under shelf with 20 gauge S.S.304, 6 inch. above ground level.
Tubler stainless steel bullet legs.
Edges to be marine edge.
STAINLESS STEEL WORK TABLE WITH SINK:
OS – 2100 x 750 x 850 mm
Table top 16 gauge S.S.304
Under shelf with 20 gauge S.S.304, 6 inch. above ground
level only on non-sink side.
Tubler stainless steel bullet legs.
Edges to be crimped edge.
The unit shall be provided with one sink on LHS size
450 x 450 x 450 mm.
Splash back shall be provided 150 mm height.
• The unit shall be of open frame construction with 12” Stainless steel panels on all sides with loovers.
• The framework of the dosa plate is 12 SWG S.S. Rods.
• One under shelf shall be provided – 20 swg. 200 mm from GL.
• Uprights shall be provided with bullet feet.
• The griddle plate (GI) of 16 mm thickness, machine polished
• Splash back shall be welded to the frame, 6 inch. height.
• S.S.trough to be provided with the removable grease-collecting tray.
• “V” burners 2 Nos. to be provided with individual pilots, United (Mumbai) make.
• Gas inlets on both sides of the unit.
• O.S. – 1500 x 750 x 850 + 150 mm.
• No.4 finish.
TWO BURNER S.S.GAS RANGE (BULK COOKING)
• The unit shall be open frame structure provided with cross bracings.
• Top S.S.sheet shall be 16 SWG.
• S.S.panels upto 12” from the top shall be 18 SWG.
• The vessel rests shall be of cast iron size 450 x 450 mm.
• S.S. spillage or drip tray to be provided.
• 2 Nos. high-pressure burners – T.22 United (Mumbai) make along with pilots.
• Provision of gas inlets shall be on both sides.
• Exhaust loovers on all 3 sides of the panel.
• Needle control valve to be provided.
• Marine edges to be provided.
• O.S. 1500 x 700 x 600 mm.
• No.4 finish.
• All stainless steel 18 gauge unit shall be steam injected on all sides.
• The capacity of the unit 108 idlies per batch.
• The unit shall have 2-chamber model with each unit having chamber to prepare 54 idlies per batch.
• Stainless steel idly trays shall be provided to make 9 idlies each tray.
• Door shall be insulated and provided with rubber gaskets.
• Hinged mechanism for doors closing.
• Water outlet for the unit to be provided.
STEAM JACKETTED VESSEL:
All stainless steel 16 SWG steam-cooking unit shall be double jacketed.
The width of the mouth shall be 18” dia. with lid.
The vessel shall be mounted on 16 SWG stainless steel pipes provided with base plates of 4” x 4” 10 SWG SS to facilitate grouting.
The unit shall be provided with tilting handles and necessary standard bearings for smooth operation.
The vessel shall be provided with drain valve and pressure release valve.
The capacity of the vessel 75 lits.
Heliarc welding to be used in all places.
Overall size 750 x 750 x 900 mm.
CHAPPATHI PLATE WITH PUFFER:
• The unit shall be open frame structure with under shelf (20 SWG)
• Under shelf 6” above ground level.
• Stainless panel of 12” width shall be provided on all sides with loovers.
• A splash back 150 mm shall be provided.
• The chapatti plate shall be a one-piece machine polished 5/8” thick plate.
• The puffer shall be a cast iron with vents.
• V” burner to be used. 2 for chapatti plate and 1 for puffer
• Individual pilots and control valves to be provided.
• Spillage/drip tray to be provided in S.S. Adjustable nylon bullet feet.
• O.S. 1300 x 750 x 850 + 150 mm Chapatti plate – 950 x 700 mm
• Puffer plate – 300 x 700 mm.
ALL STAINLESS STEEL 6in1 BAIN MARIE SERVICE COUNTER:
• The top of the Bain Marie shall be 16 SWG S.S.
• 3 side blinders shall be of 20 SWG the under shelf 18 SWG shall be 6” above GL
• The unit shall be provided with 1/2 G.N.pans (gastro norm pans) 200 mm deep and with 2 Nos. round containers of 225 mm x 200 mm depth made of 16 SWG with lids.
• The unit shall be provided with rotator switch on/off, thermostat and pilot lamp indicator of standard make.
• One partition inside the counter on the non-bain marie container side at 12” height from the bottom.
• O.S. 1500 x 700 x 850 mm.
A complete discussion of selecting and sizing of all the different types of kitchen equipments is beyond the scope of this study material. A brief discussion of frequently specified major items of equipments would serve to illustrate this part of the planning process.
A: DEEP FAT FRYERS:
Deep fat fryers are available in a variety of types, capacities and degree of automatic operation desired. The productive capacity of a fryer is related to the litres of fat in the fryers, the heat input, and the cooking time required for various foods. Typical designs of fryers are based on a fat-to-food ratio 6:1. This indicates that each kg. of food to be fried requires 6 lits. of oil (or) fat in the deep fat fryer. Conventional fryers are tailor made to the requirement of the client to various capacity, 1/2 lit, 1 lit. 3, 5, 7 and so on.
Pressure fryers make another category of deep fryers they are sealed to permit steam pressure to build up between the lid and the fat surface. The steam is generated from the foods fried or by water injectors. The pressure fryer reduces the loss of moisture from foods. Heat transfer in a pressure fryer is greater than a conventional fryer and consequently the cooking time is shorter. The food is brown outside, moist and juicy on the inside.
B. BRATT PAN (Tilting frying pan):
The brat pan is one of the most versatile pieces of cooking equipment. Its design is such that it can be used to boil, simmer, grill, sauté, fry and curries. For some items like Indian gravies, sambar, foogath can be done in the tilting frying pan with some savings in time that would normally be spent transferring foods and cleaning other utensils. Brat pan may be free standing; walls mounted, counter mounted and are available in gas and electricity model. There are models which are ignited by electricity and working on gas. The brat pan is tilted by a worm and gear assembly operated by hand wheel. They are tailor-made to difference capacities of 50 litters to 300 litters.
Griddle are flat top piece of equipment heated from beneath, as compared to grills which have heating sources both above and beneath. Griddles are used for high production food service and fast food operations. Grills are more of a specialty piece of equipment. Both gas fired and electric models are suitable for most purposes. Griddles are available in variety of sizes from small i.e. 10” x 20” to as large as 72” x 24”. Griddles are free standing, counter-mounted, mobile or built in as the situation demands. The height of the splashguard, location and the width of the grease trough should be considered when specifying griddles. Combination griddle-grill is also available. This provides greater flexibility for the preparation of different menu items.
Food cutters are versatile piece of equipment that can handle meats, vegetable and fruits. The food cutters can cut, dice, shred, and almost liquefies foods, depending upon the amount of time the food is left in the cutter. The foods to be size reduced are placed in a bowl, which rotates and exposes them to high speed rotating blades. Both bench and floor models are available. Some cutter models are equipped with an attachment hub for accepting various attachments.
E. STEAM JACKETED KETTLES:
Steam jacketed kettles are constructed of two stainless steel bowls sealed one within the other, with almost 2” of space between them for the introduction of steam. The amount of steam surface between the bowls is referred to as jacketing and models from half-jacketed to full jacketed are available. The operation of steam-jacketed kettles utilizes steam, which is condensed back to water in the jacket to provide the heat for the inner kettle. A condensate line is provided to remove the water that accumulates. The amount of heat input is dependent upon the pressure and amount of steam allowed to enter the jacketed area. There is a pressure gauge to indicate the pressure. In case of excess pressure is let into the jacket, there is a pressure /air release valve to reduce the pressure. These kettles are used to cook rice, dhal, boil milk, and cook vegetables. They are available in 50, 100, 200 and 300 lit capacities.
F.GAS COOKING RANGE:
Gas cooking ranges have open top burners with high-pressure burners, T-22, T-35. They are tailor made for the client’s is requirement. They are manufactured in different combinations such as 2 in 1, 3 in 1, 4 in 1 and 6 in 1. The length and breadth of the range depends on the quantity food to be prepared. In case of a la carte preparation, a combination of high and low pressure burners is used, the area being 14”x 14”. The height of the cooking ranges 33” – 34”. But for ideal bulk cooking the length various between 20” to 24” per range, and. the height is reduced to 18” to 20”. Heavy gauge stainless steel and heavy-duty supports are used for these cooking ranges since it involves bulk preparation.
A Chinese gas cooking range is aptly designed for authentic Chinese delicacies, with a cast iron dome, to prevent the direct heat on to the chef while cooking with a wok. A 12” to 14” height splash back with a swivelling faucet with controls in front panel for immediate water and a drain channel at the rear to enable to chef to empty the wastewater is also provided in this equipment. They are ideal with flat open top gas range in the middle for stockpot and dome cover gas ranges on either side for a la carte preparations.
G. DOSA PLATE:
The dosa plates are similar to the griddles which have hot plates specially designed to prepare dosas. The plate is thick machine polished, mild steel with even heat distribution for optimum use.
The M.S.plate rests on stainless steel frame, and it has S.S.top, front and a specially placed oil spillage trough. The splash back on all three sides of the dosa plate to avoid splash of oil or batter. For uniform heat distribution a “V” shaped burner is placed. This unit is available in electric/gas. It is custom-built size to prepare a minimum 2-3 dosas to 8-10 dosas at a time.
H. IDLI STEAMER:
Idly steamers are S.S.cabinets with tight fitting doors with gaskets. Steam is injected into the cabinet to pre heat to the required temperature. Idly plates are made of S.S./Aluminium with different combinations. The steam is injected from the sides, top and bottom. These cabinets are tailor made to accommodate 2-4-6 idly plates at a time. It is advisable to have 2 plate compartments because steam is lost during the process of loading the idly plates.
Technorati Tags: GRIDDLE, TILTING FRYING PAN, BRATT PAN, DEEP FAT FRYERS, CHAPPATHI PLATE WITH PUFFER, STEAM JACKETTED VESSEL, IDLI STEAMER, BULK COOKING, TWO BURNER S.S.GAS RANGE, DOSA PLATE, DISH WASHING MACHINE, VERTICAL CHOPPER – HOBART, PROPRIETORY SPECIFICATIONS, KIRLOSKAR, COMPRESSORS , I.S.I MARK, UNITED WORKS, GAS BURNERS, PROPRIETARY SPECIFICATIONS, REFERENCE SPECIFICATION, DESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATIONS, PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS, STEAM KETTLE, WORK TABLE, SINK, DRAIN BOARD, BAIN MARIE, CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS, GAUGE NUMBER THICKNES, SWISS WIRE GAUGE (SWG), KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS FABRICATORS, KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS MANUFACTURERS , SPECIAL FEATURES, CONSTRUCTIONS TECHNIQUES, STANDARD MATERIALS, SPECIFICATION, KITCHEN, EQUIPMENTS
Windows Live Tags: GRIDDLE, TILTING FRYING PAN, BRATT PAN, DEEP FAT FRYERS, CHAPPATHI PLATE WITH PUFFER, STEAM JACKETTED VESSEL, IDLI STEAMER, BULK COOKING, TWO BURNER S.S.GAS RANGE, DOSA PLATE, DISH WASHING MACHINE, VERTICAL CHOPPER – HOBART, PROPRIETORY SPECIFICATIONS, KIRLOSKAR, COMPRESSORS , I.S.I MARK, UNITED WORKS, GAS BURNERS, PROPRIETARY SPECIFICATIONS, REFERENCE SPECIFICATION, DESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATIONS, PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS, STEAM KETTLE, WORK TABLE, SINK, DRAIN BOARD, BAIN MARIE, CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS, GAUGE NUMBER THICKNES, SWISS WIRE GAUGE (SWG), KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS FABRICATORS, KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS MANUFACTURERS , SPECIAL FEATURES, CONSTRUCTIONS TECHNIQUES, STANDARD MATERIALS, SPECIFICATION, KITCHEN, EQUIPMENTS
WordPress Tags: GRIDDLE, TILTING FRYING PAN, BRATT PAN, DEEP FAT FRYERS, CHAPPATHI PLATE WITH PUFFER, STEAM JACKETTED VESSEL, IDLI STEAMER, BULK COOKING, TWO BURNER S.S.GAS RANGE, DOSA PLATE, DISH WASHING MACHINE, VERTICAL CHOPPER – HOBART, PROPRIETORY SPECIFICATIONS, KIRLOSKAR, COMPRESSORS , I.S.I MARK, UNITED WORKS, GAS BURNERS, PROPRIETARY SPECIFICATIONS, REFERENCE SPECIFICATION, DESCRIPTIVE SPECIFICATIONS, PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS, STEAM KETTLE, WORK TABLE, SINK, DRAIN BOARD, BAIN MARIE, CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS, GAUGE NUMBER THICKNES, SWISS WIRE GAUGE (SWG), KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS FABRICATORS, KITCHEN EQUIPMENTS MANUFACTURERS , SPECIAL FEATURES, CONSTRUCTIONS TECHNIQUES, STANDARD MATERIALS, SPECIFICATION, KITCHEN, EQUIPMENTS