KITCHEN LAY OUT & DESIGN
After developing the work places, determining the specific equipment to use, and finalizing the space requirements, the food facility consultant is ready to accomplish the layout phase of the planning process. Some of the equipment layouts for certain functions may already have been completed during the design of the work places. Now the designer will formalize them, first as rough sketches and ultimately in the form of blue prints.
The layout process may be described as two separate stages that occur at the same time. One stage deals with arrangements of individual pieces of equipment, work tables, and sinks with a unit which comprise a functional area or a functional department i.e. one particular area may be developed for the function of Indian and Tandoor preparations, (or) salad and sandwich preparation, as a single unit.
The second stage of layout process involves arranging the functional areas into a total facility. For e.g. the receiving, storing, pre-preparation, production, pot washing areas, and non production areas such a rest rooms, offices are brought together to form the basic floor plan for the facility.
There may be some doubt as to whether these 2 stages of layout are done at the same time. Even though the designer may be working on one stage or another at any given time, layout design must be considered in term of both stages. In essence, the layout of the total facility must be considered when laying out the component areas and vice versa.
Concepts of Layout:
There are 4 concepts of layout for a kitchen plan, they are
1. Materials or products
2. Machines and equipment’s
1. Materials or products
• The products should be designed for ease of production.
• Raw materials used should require minimum no. of processing steps.
• The layout should protect the material from detrimental factors such as moisture, dust, vibration and temperature changes.
• To provide flexible layout to handle change with product
• Material storage area should facilitate taking inventory.
• Provide facilities for storing waste and scrap materials.
2. Machines and Equipments.
• The equipment provided in the layout should be united to the required processes.
• Maximum use of the equipment’s should be planned.
• Layout should provide for each operations of the equipment.
• Layout should facilitate movement of mobile equipment’s.
• Sufficient access space for equipment maintenance should be provided.
• Proper ventilation and exhausting of equipment to be provided.
• Layout should safeguard the workers by eliminating hazards.
• Adequate light should be provided.
• Proper exhaust system for fresh air should be provided.
• Layout should be free of distracting activities.
• Design of work place should correspond to the height of the workers.
• Layout should provide adequate work space.
• Layout should provide for easy movement of material and workers.
• Provide for smooth flow into and out of work place
• Layout should prevent back tracking
• Delays in movement of material should be minimized.
The arrangement of equipment and work places for functional areas is usually is the form of a straight line or in combination and modifications of straight line configurations. The basic patterns that may be used include;
Single straight line arrangement: This is the simplest of designs, but it is limited in the number of pieces of equipment or work places that can be arranged. The straight line arrangement may be placed along a wall or take the form of an island.
‘L’ Shaped arrangement: This is a modification of the straight line arrangement to accommodate more equipments and work places, it is sometimes used where linear space is limited. The ‘L’ shaped configuration is suitable for separating two major groups of equipment. One group of equipment would be placed on one leg of the ‘L’, the other group forming the second leg.
‘U’ shaped arrangement:‘U’ shaped configuration is ideal for small areas where only one or two employees are working. One disadvantage of this configuration is that straight line flow through the area is not possible.
Parallel, back to back arrangement: This configuration is an arrangement of two parallel lines where the backs of the equipment and/or work places on each line are adjacent to each other. This arrangement centralizes the utility lines required for the equipment. Some time a short wall is constructed between the two rows of equipment, in which case provision for cleaning and maintenance should be provided.
Parallel face to face arrangement: This arrangement utilises two straight lines of equipment and work places where the front face each other and are separated by an aisle space. This is very common configuration that can be used in many areas of facility. This configuration requires two separate utility lines for equipment as compared to the single utility line used in the parallel back to back arrangement.
The final arrangement for most facilities is usually composed of a combination of configuration of equipment and work places. Only the smallest of operations would use a single configuration of the layout facilities.
After arriving at the total area requirement for the main kitchen, the following is the estimated percentage of production/space for functional areas:-
Functioning area Space allotted %
• Receiving -5
• Food storage -20
• Pre-preparation -20
• Cooking- 12
• Baking -10
• Pot wash – KSD -5
• Traffic aisles -16
• Garbage – wet/dry- 5
• Employee facilities- 5
• Miscellaneous -2
If you understand the basic principles of kitchen layout will help take much of the mystery out of the design process. The most basic layout principle is the work triangle. The work triangle is the line drawn from each of the three primary work stations in the kitchen – the food storage, cooktop, and sink. By drawing these lines, you can see the distance you’ll walk to move to and from each area.
The sum of the ideal triangle is supposed to be between 15 and 22 feet, putting each of the three appliances within two or three steps of one another.
The three primary kitchen work stations which create the work triangle are:
1.Food storage– Your refrigerator and pantry are the major items here. Cabinetry like lazy Susan or swing-out pantry units adds function and convenience. Options like wine racks, spice racks, and roll-out trays help to organize your groceries.
2.The preparation/cooking station– Your range, oven, microwave, and smaller appliances are found in this area. Counter space is important in this section. Conserve space by moving appliances off the counter with appliance garage cabinets and space-saving ideas like towel rods and pot lid racks.
3.The clean-up station– Everyone’s least favourite activity is one of the kitchen’s most important – clean-up. This area is home to the sink, waste disposal, and dishwasher. Cabinetry for this station is designed to organize with the trash bin cabinet and roll-out tray baskets for storage convenience.
Your kitchen is probably more than just a place to cook and eat. You may choose to include a breakfast bar, desk, bookshelves, computer station, a TV or whatever in your kitchen.
The work triangle, however is experiencing a remodel of its own. The work triangle was designed for an age when there was only one cook, and only three appliances (fridge, stove, sink).
Here are a few top tips:
• No leg of the triangle is supposed to be less than 4 feet or more than 9 feet.
• There should be no human (well, or non human, of course) traffic flow cutting through the triangle.
• Place the microwave near the refrigerator for convenience
• Walk space should be 42″ wide to account for traffic flow and clearance of large appliance doors or large relatives
• Counter space on either side of the range or cooktop should be a minimum of 15 inches
• An 18-inch counter should be adjacent to the fridge on the same side as the handle
• The food prep area (minimum counter space 36 inches) is ideally located between the fridge and the sink; If the food prep area is between the sink and the range or cooktop, it will involve more travel.
• A lower surface is best for food prep (measure 7 to 8 inches below your elbow height)
• In two-cook kitchens, the fridge and range/cook top are usually shared.
• Two triangles can share a leg, but shouldn’t overlap
• An island with a second sink creates at least one more triangle, and adapts to many uses: wet bar location, flower cutting and arranging, homework station etc.
Now let’s see the layouts:
The single line (or Pullman) kitchen
This is a smart and simple solution for narrow rooms, ideally with one wall over 10 feet long, without windows or doors. However, this layout causes the longest journey distances since you often have to walk from one end of the room to the other. Therefore, it’s a good idea to place the sink in the middle of the line, with adequate space separating it from the range.
• Ideal for apartments and smaller homes
• Works well with the open designs found in many contemporary homes
• Small moveable table can provide eating space
• Can be enhanced with the addition of an island
The galley kitchen
This shape offers the most efficient use of space, making it the choice of many professional chefs. The two rows allow room for lots of preparation space, and moving between activity areas can be as easy as turning around. However, this shape is not ideal if the corridor is open at both ends, since it can cause traffic congestion.
Make sure there is enough room for opposite drawers to be open at the same time (at least 48″). Another important consideration is to keep the cleaning and cooking areas on the same side in order to minimize the risk of accidents while moving hot pans between the sink and range.
• Great for smaller kitchens
• Appliances are close to one another
• Easy for one cook to manoeuvre
• Can easily convert to a U-Shape by closing off one end
The L-shape kitchen
This is a very popular kitchen layout – ideal for a family kitchen, or for entertaining guests, since it can easily accommodate table and chairs in the same room. Using two adjacent walls, the kitchen also benefits from the lack of through-traffic. The sink, range and fridge should be separated by a preparation area.
• Very flexible layout design
• Major appliances can be placed in a variety of areas
• Work areas are close to each other
• Can easily convert to a U-Shape with a cabinet leg addition
The U-shape kitchen
The use of three full walls in a room offers the perfect working kitchen. The fridge, range and sink can be spaced out for maximum efficiency and convenience. This is great news for those who take your cooking seriously, as it provides the best workflows with the shortest distances around the kitchen. This shape also allows for large amounts of countertop and storage space.
• Perfect for families who use their kitchens a great deal
• Provides plenty of counter space
• Efficient work triangle
• Can convert one cabinet leg into a breakfast bar
The island kitchen
A very popular kitchen type, the island layout is perfect if you plan to entertain but requires more floor space. An independent island unit can face a dining or living area, allowing the cook to socialize while preparing. A sink here provides the optimal arrangement in terms of the kitchen’s working triangle. Otherwise, a cook top with a canopy over the island can form a stunning focal point to the kitchen.
The G-Shaped Kitchen
Built very much like the U-Shaped with the addition of an elongated partial wall, the G-Shaped kitchen offers a great deal of space. Ideal for larger families needing extra storage space Plenty of counter and cabinet space Multiple cooks can function well in this layout Can convert one cabinet leg into a breakfast bar or entertaining area
PLANNING OF VARIOUS SUPPORTING SERVICES
Pot and Pan Washing:
The pot and pan washing function is also preferably done in a separate area instead of combining it with other areas as some small operations may be inclined to do. The basic pot and pan washing function can be handled with a 3 compartment sink and drain boards, sufficient space for storing the soil utensils have to be provided.
In some operations, a large storage area for soiled utensils may be required because they are not washed as soon as they are received. This occurs when the same personnel who wash dish, also wash the pots and pans. Pot washing machines are considered for large food facility if they can be economically justified.
A pot wash area is suppressed by 6” than the regular floor level of the kitchen, to avoid the water flowing into the main kitchen area. A heavy jet washer with water at a temperature of 88 degrees is used to wash pots because they easily remove the dirt and fat and make cleaning easy. Since the pot wash area becomes very messy with waste food and fat, anti-skid tiles are recommended for the floor and white glazed tiles on the three side walls up to 8’ feet height. A minimum area of 10’ x 10’ is required.
Wet Grinding Area:
In India wet grinding area is considered to be one of the supporting services to the main kitchen. There will be a minimum of two wet grinders in any small hotels, so that there is a standby in case of breakdown. Wet grinders are tailor made and are of different capacities. The ideal functional area required for a wet grinding is 10’ x 4’. The area has to have anti-skid tiles for the floor and glaze tiles on the wall to maintain hygienic conditions.
The chef’s cabin has to be ideally located, so that, he has a clear view of the entire kitchen. In some organizations and some hotels the Chef cabin is being utilized to store the imported stock of ingredients like, spices, wine etc. Ideally 10’ x 10’ is required for the chefs cabins.
This is a sub store which is located within the kitchen, in the control of the chef. The quantities of material drawn for the day from the main food store is stored in the chefs larder, since there is no space to store this in the individual kitchen, the drawn material is stored in a place with the kitchen, which is called as chefs larder. Chef’s larder is convenient for the cooks, because they can draw material at any given time of the day even after the main food store is closed for the day in the evening. Large quantities of food material should not be stored in a chef larder because it blocks the capital of the hotel.
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